Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses which requires early detection and intervention to successfully overcome it. However, treatment for depression is being conducted insufficiently due to lack of information about the illness and concern about the stigma. Moreover, traditional assessment for depression mostly depends on self-report, which may hinder appropriate assessment and intervention with inaccurate retrospection.
Recently, attempts have been made to detect depression early by automatically measuring user biometrics, mobile phone usage patterns, and behavioral characteristics through mobile and wearable devices. However, existing mobile applications for depression detection have limitations such as insufficient consideration of diagnostic criteria or inclusion of self-report.
Therefore, this study aims to develop an integrative ICT service platform, which automatically measures 5 depression index(mood, food intake, sleep, physical activity, social activity), assesses depression level based on the measured data, and provides intervention by level.
Depression and insomnia are the psychological problems most frequently complained by cancer patients. Some studies report that cognitive schema could different by cause (serious disease such as cancer or not), even the same symptoms of depression and insomnia. The understanding of cognitive schema is a critical component for cognitive behavioral therapy, to provide more effective intervention for cancer patients experiencing depression and insomnia. Therefore, in this study, we compare cancer patients and non-cancer participants who experience similar levels of depression and insomnia to see if there are any differences in cognitive schema depending on whether they have cancer.
Most of parents experience parenting stress which is psychological burden specifically from playing a role as parents. It has been reported that parents experience more parenting stress when their children become adolescents because children in that period insist more freedom or independence and show more disobedience. Such transitional period of children overlaps with midlife crisis of parents, who experience unstable physical and psychological state. It may result in vicious circle as the severe stress reduces quality of life and increase psychological or/and behavioral problems. However, there is no convenient reliable and valid measurement that measures stress of parents of adolescents. The purpose of the study is to investigate factor structure of SIPA (Stess Index for Parents of Adolescent) with Korean data to reduce items appropriate for Korean culture and to test reliability and validity of the measurement.
Parents gain pleasure and joy from their children, but they also experience certain amount of stress from parenting since it is physically, psychologically and economically burdensome(Eisenhower, Baker, & Blacher, 2009). When daily parenting stress gets accumulated frequently and constantly, it might have as much impact as severe stressor(Weinberger, Hiner, & Tierney, 1987). So, appropriate assessment and intervention for parenting stress is necessary. PSI-SF(Parenting Stress Index Short Form) is a short form index, consisted of 36 items from PSI, measuring parenting stress of parents who have child aged 1~12 years. PSI-SF was first developed in 1976 in U.S., and was revised into PSI-4-SF in 2012(Abidin, 2012). Since PSI-SF is able to be implemented in relatively short amount of time, it may contribute to efficient assessment at research and clinical field. Therefore, this study aims to standardize PSI-4-SF into korean version to measure parenting stress of korean parents.
In this study, the Korean-Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents(K-SIPA) was developed by translating the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents(SIPA), and standardization was carried out. All the items were translated by 3-step translation process, and finally completed through consultation from experts and parents. 942 parents of typically developing adolescents (age range: 11 to 19 years) answered health-related questionnaire, K-SIPA, Parental Confidence Questionnaire for child, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36). After 2-4 weeks, parents who agreed in advance answered K-SIPA retest, Korean-Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18(K-CBCL 6-18), Patient Health Questionnaire 9(PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7(GAD-7). In order to develop the norms, K-SIPA score differences between demographic factors of adolescents and parent were analyzed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated to verify the reliability. K-SI*PA was administered to parents of adolescents with mental disorder and parents of typically developing adolescents in order to verify discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was verified by conducting correlation analysis between K-SIPA and other measures, and by analyzing differences in parental confidence according to the level of parenting stress. Convergent validity was confirmed by correlation analysis between subscales and domains of K-SIPA. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of K-SIPA along the structure of SIPA. The results confirmed that K-SIPA was psychometrically reliable and valid tool for parenting stress. Finally, the implications and limitations of this standardization study were discussed.
In this study, the Korean-Parenting Stress Index 4th Edition(K-PSI-4) was developed by translating the Parenting Stress Index 4th Edition(PSI-4), and standardization was carried out. In order to solve the problem of awkward translation of Korean-Parenting Stress Index(K-PSI) and to produce more clear statements, all the items were re-translated by 3-step translation process, and finally completed through consultation from experts and parents. 1,333 parents of typically developing children (age range: 1 to 12 years) answered health-related questionnaire, K-PSI-4, Parental Confidence Questionnaire for preschooler or child, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey(SF-36). After 2-4 weeks, parents who agreed in advance answered K-PSI-4 retest or K-PSI, Korean-Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5(K-CBCL 1.5-5) or Korean-Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18(K-CBCL 6-18), Patient Health Questionnaire 9(PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7(GAD-7). In order to develop the norms, K-PSI-4 score differences between sex and age of children were analyzed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated to verify the reliability. K-PSI-4 was administered to parents of children with mental disorder and parents of typically developing children in order to verify discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was verified by conducting correlation analysis between K-PSI-4 and other measures, and by analyzing differences in parental confidence according to the level of parenting stress. Convergent validity was confirmed by correlation analysis between subscales and domains of K-PSI-4. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of K-PSI-4 along the structure of PSI-4. The results confirmed that K-PSI-4 was psychometrically reliable and valid tool for parenting stress. Finally, the implications and limitations of this standardization study were discussed.
Reinforcement is an important
environmental variable that increases the motivation for the work of people
with intellectual disabilities. Variables affecting the effect of reinforcement
are type of reinforcement, schedule of reinforcement, and immediacy of
reinforcement. In recent years, “distribution of reinforcement”,
which is a combination of reinforcement schedule and immediate reinforcement,
has been newly proposed(DeLeon, Chase, Frank-Crawford, Carreau-Webster, Triggs,
Bullock, & Jennet, 2014; Frank-Crawford et al., 2018; Hoffman, 2017). Providing
a small amount of reinforcement immediately after each reaction is called
distributed reinforcement. It is called accumulated reinforcement that provides
a cumulative amount of reinforcement after repeated positive reactions, and it
is said that the effect of each type of reinforcement is different for each
individual. However, although the effect of distribution of reinforcement is
influenced by the difficulty of the task(Joachim & Carroll, 2017; Kocher et
al., 2015; Ward-Horner et al., 2017a), there is no research that simultaneously
manipulated the distribution of reinforcement and the difficulty of the task. Therefore,
the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the arrangement of
reinforcement of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities by
manipulating the distribution of reinforcement and task difficulty: 1.
Immediate reinforcement in easy tasks, 2. Cumulative reinforcement in easy
tasks, 3. Immediate reinforcement in difficult tasks, and 4. Cumulative
reinforcement in difficult tasks.
Since acquiring adaptive skills is
essential to quality of life and independence of youths with developmental
disabilities (DD), there is a need of intervention program which is effective
and highly accessible. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to improve
adaptive skills of youths with DD. In order to produce programs that are highly
utilized in the field, need assessment and production process were performed.
As a need assessment, semi-structured interview with 5 BCBAs (Board Certified
Behavior Analysts), 10 teachers and 17 parents was conducted. Upon the basis of
thematic analysis for a qualitative data, contents were classified into six
categories; self-help skills, situation awareness, social rules, coping skills,
communication, attention skills. Especially, six out of 13 respondents who
replied in coping skills also replied in self-help skills and situation awareness.
The most demanding training contents were identified as learning situations
such as self-help skills and social rules. 41 situations were chosen by
reviewing a book, assessment tool, 11 times of internal meeting, and
consultation with ABA specialists. Videos were 15seconds to 1minute long, and
pictorial cues were 3 to 5 sequential pictures edited from the videos. The
developed contents are in process to be arranged to a multimedia e-book. In
order to promote the motivation of persons with DD to learn, the e-book is
incorporated with videos, pictorial cues, descriptions, and quizzes. This
e-book will be published in Korean and English on android market by November
New terms such as “helicopter moms” who hover around their children and “lawn moms’ refer to mothers who take the lead in removing obstacles in front of their children instead, reflect socially rampant overprotective upbringing. In addition, according to surveys on the types of child rearing in Korea, Japan, Germany, Sweden, and other countries, Korean mothers are relatively less supportive and more controlled (Lee, Lee, Kim, 2008) and Korean over-preservation is reported to feature face-consciousness, emphasis on achievement, and equalization of children in addition to excessive control (Chung, Yun, 2015). Previous studies have shown that overprotective behavior is related to a college student’s sense of right or negative personality traits, so it is considered essential to develop measures that accurately reflect the level of overprotection among college students. This study seeks to partially revise the sub-paragraph of the Korean Overprotective Scale (K-POS) for high school students, which was developed and validated by Chung and Yoon (2015), and to re-organize them for college students.
In the field of behavioral economics, the situation of conflicts of interest can be defined as an act of seeking private interest in a particular situation by the person, carrying out judgment or action for others, (Kim, 2016) and is often viewed as a contextual factor, affecting moral choices(Kwak, 2012). previous studies assert that two factors of preventing private profit in a conflict of interest are ‘disclosure’ and ‘message framing’. First, previous studies report that ‘disclosure’ people, experiencing a conflict of interest, reduce the probability of choosing a private interest action(Kim & Chung, 2016; Taha, Petrocelli, 2015), but the number of studies on the effects of the disclosure is very limited and inconsistent. Sung & Chung(2018) reported positive framing in the context of a conflict of interest regarding ‘message framing,’ but in the sense that only messages focused on others have been used, further studies that distinguish the subject of the message are needed. This study aims to reveal the effects of disclosure in the event of a conflict of interest and to verify the effectiveness of message-framing by manipulating the target of the message. In the case of message framing, the effect of the message ‘Self-oriented’ is compared to the message ‘Others-observed’ that a person’s moral or immoral decision can result in profit or loss to others.