Since acquiring adaptive skills is essential to quality of life and independence of youths with developmental disabilities (DD), there is a need of intervention program which is effective and highly accessible. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to improve adaptive skills of youths with DD. In order to produce programs that are highly utilized in the field, need assessment and production process were performed. As a need assessment, semi-structured interview with 5 BCBAs (Board Certified Behavior Analysts), 10 teachers and 17 parents was conducted. Upon the basis of thematic analysis for a qualitative data, contents were classified into six categories; self-help skills, situation awareness, social rules, coping skills, communication, attention skills. Especially, six out of 13 respondents who replied in coping skills also replied in self-help skills and situation awareness. The most demanding training contents were identified as learning situations such as self-help skills and social rules. 41 situations were chosen by reviewing a book, assessment tool, 11 times of internal meeting, and consultation with ABA specialists. Videos were 15seconds to 1minute long, and pictorial cues were 3 to 5 sequential pictures edited from the videos. Examination of the effectiveness of the program is in progress
Currently, the interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD), which usually focus on improving social skills and cognitive function, are both costly in terms of time and monetary funds. In order to create a more cost-effective method, the authors developed two mobile application based training programs, ‘Yface, a social skills training program, and ‘Ycog’, a cognitive function training program for children with ASD. To investigate the effectiveness of the training programs, each participant was assessed his or her social skills and cognitive function before the start and after the completion of the training program Based on the results, the two training programs were effective in improving each targeted area—social skills or cognitive function. In order to generalize the effectiveness of the programs, the ‘Yface’ and ‘Ycog’ training program was distributed on the mobile application market. The training program is currently downloadable for anyone who is interested in the program under the condition that the participant consents to the study and completes a pre-assessment prior to training. To further investigate and develop more cost-effective programs, further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of consistent training
Food selectivity is common among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and repeated exposure to food is considered a key component of treating this problem. This study investigated the effects of a preventive program using repeated exposure of vegetables on vegetable consumption, both in an experimental setting and during mealtime among preschoolers with ASD showing no severe food selectivity. A total of 27 preschoolers with ASD were assigned to either a 6-month-long exposure program (n = 13, mean age = 4.42 years) or a control group (n = 14, mean age = 4.04 years). The training program was developed to facilitate visual and tactile contact with various vegetables and consisted of 24 activities, which were repeated four times using different vegetables. The training was conducted four times a week at the children’s early intervention agency by their therapists. Changes in vegetable consumption in the experimental setting as well as nutritional intake during regular mealtime were compared between the exposure and control groups, before and after the exposure program. Significant group differences were found in vegetable consumption, but not in nutritional intake during regular mealtime. The limitations and direction for future research are further discussed.
The purpose of this study is to compare the attention bias of negative stimuli between people who have psychological problems and people who do not. During the study, people completed self-reporting questionnaire – the same questionnaire used for those participating in “HARU”- to check the severity of and what type of psychological problems they had. After the survey, they completed a pictorial dot-probe task of several types and word IAT(Implicit Association Task) tasks. Each task was composed of positive, negative, or neutral conditions. Thus, the current study aims to examine the effects of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, sleep, pain) at the cognitive level and to check the effects of emotion on cognition.
Self-control is the exertion of control over urges, behaviors, desires, or emotions, following rules or inhibits impulsive desires to delay gratification to maximize the long-term best interests of the individual. Self-control has been linked to parental rearing attitude among young children and adolescents. One problematic parental rearing attitude linked to their children’s self-control is overprotective rearing. Previous studies suggested “the paradox of overparenting”, despite the good intentions, the way of overparenting is not associated with positive outcomes for their children which may indeed be linked with results that could hinder the child’s success and well-being. It is implied that overparenting hinder their child from developing psychological dependence and autonomy. However, most of the related research has focused on young children and adolescents, the literature with respect to overparenting and college students’ outcomes are limited. Furthermore, neglective parenting, another extreme rearing attitude of parents, is also known to impede the development of their children. Early studies showed the association between self-regulated learning and parental neglective rearing attitude among young children but findings are limited. This study hypothesized that there are negative associations of extreme parenting (overparenting and neglective parenting) with self-control in high school students and examined the relation with behavioral tasks.
It is reported that 30-90% of children with developmental disabilities have various behavior problems such as self-harm, attack, and destructive behavior (Matson, Wilkins, & Macken, 2009). Behavior problems that occur in the individual with developmental disabilities interfere with his or her adaptation in many areas. In this regard, literature shows that “Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)” based on learning theory is an evidence-based treatment of behavior problems. Treatment based on ABA is reported to be more effective when a “Functional Assessment” is preceded (McIntosh, Brown, & Borgmeier, 2008). Functions for behavior problems include demand, automatic, attention, tangible, and physical condition (Iwata et al., 1982; Matson & Vollmer, 1995). Researches support the hypotheses that the results of functional assessments are different according to the type of behavior problems (Asmus et al., 2004), environment(이효정 외, 2015), and reporters(van der Ende, Verhulst, & Tiemeier, 2012). Therefore, the purpose of our study is to identify the functions of behavior problems according to the types of behavior problems and reporters. As a measure, we used “Functional Assessment for Challenging/Problem Behaviors(FAPB)”(정경미, 김수연, 정다이, 2017), which was developed and standardized for the purpose of identifying functions of behavior problems.
Persuasive interaction is a type of technology based on HCI that induces behavioral changes according to the goals set by the user (Calvo & Peters, 2014). In the area of physical activity, the implementation of persuasive interaction simplifies the process of collecting objective quantitative data based on the changes in bio-signals. However, the majority of smart phone applications related to physical activity have not undergone the process of experimental verification, (Donker, Petrie, Proudfoot, Clarke, Birch, & Christensen, 2013). Yet, they are being used quite prevalently as a means to monitor physical/psychological data without factoring in the state of the user’s emotions or usage patterns (Adamczyk & Bailey, 2004; Lee, Jeong, & Yoon, 2012; Joe & Demiris, 2013). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to look at this phenomenon from a behavioral perspective and to determine the reinforcement system that contributes to physical enhancement and change. Another aspect of this research is to collect quantitative personal/environmental data of individuals to devise an appropriate intervention method according to personal situations and environmental factors. Last but not least, the objective of this study is to develop a design guideline for persuasive interaction services that will ultimately bring about changes in targeted behavior while maintaining the actions of such changed performance.
As a parent of a child, a certain amount of responsibility and burden is unavoidable when carrying out such parental duties and everyone is subject to this type of stress, the only difference being the level of perception that one experiences. However, a fraction of these adults experience levels of extreme stress (Crininc & Greenberg, 1990) that is detrimental to their physical and psychological health.
Domestically, PSI is the most frequently used tool to assess parental stress level for those with children aged between one to twelve. Although this revised 2012 edition has added an age-specific criterion of 1056 subjects from 2007, the fact that this study was conducted in the United States limits the scope of implementation here in Korea. Other devices for measuring parental stress levels include the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) developed by Sheras, Abidin and Konold (1998). This includes the developmental characteristics of adolescents, but due to the fact that the effects of cultural differences have not yet been verified, it is not being widely used in Korea at the moment.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a Korean version of both the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) and the fourth PSI edition that measures the stress levels of parents raising young children. Standardizing the SIPA and fourth edition of the SDI, which is for measuring the stress levels of Korean parents raising children and adolescents, will prove to be useful in clinical assessments and treatments in addition to other areas such as cross-cultural studies etc.
The present study is supported by Korea Health Industry Development Institute (한국보건산업진흥원) and it seeks to develop and validate “Smart Brain”, a game application for enhancing the executive functioning of children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are disorders that exhibit abnormalities related to brain functioning, such as cerebrospinal functioning. They also include intellectual disability, learning disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Children and Adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders have difficulties adapting across domains. Based on previous studies, researchers have also found that their quality of life was related to executive functioning (Happé, Booth, Charlton, & Hughes, 2006; Zimmerman, Ownsworth, O’Donovan, Roberts, & Gullo, 2018). Moreover, it has been shown that training executive functioning at an earlier age results in greater improvement (Robertson & Murre, 1999) and that having an effective reinforcement system motivates the adolescent, increase his or her interest, and encourages him or her to use it more. Based on these notions, the current study seeks to develop an application that includes gaming components that is specifically targeted for the children and adolescents.
Conflict of interest (COI) is one of the dominant circumstantial factors of moral corruption across various fields. Several management strategies have been proposed to prevent self-interested decision making in COIs. Among these strategies, message persuasion has been considered as a practical and effective approach. Prior studies have found that framing and repetition are two of the major factors in the persuasion effect of message. However, their effect on moral decision making in COI has not been well explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of positively framed message and negatively framed message, and secondly, to investigate how the effectiveness of persuasive message changes through repetitive exposures. A total of 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of 3 framing conditions: positive framing, negative framing, and no-message condition. Prior to the on-line experiment involving a consultation task, differently framed persuasive message were presented to the participants. This process was repeated four times in a row. The results showed that participants with positive-framing message were less likely to provide self-interested consultation than participants in the no-message condition. Also, a U-shaped quadric relation between repetition and self-interest consultation was found. Implications and limitations are further discussed.
Key words: Conflict of interest, Framing effect, Repetition effect, Moral decision making