카테고리 보관물: Research

The effect of overparenting on the development of key competencies in college students

One of the features which make millennial college students and adults different from the former generation is high involvement of parents who provide excessive help and control. Previous studies suggested “the paradox of overparenting”, despite the good intentions, the way of overparenting is not associated with positive outcomes for their children which may indeed be linked with results that could hinder the child’s success and well-being. It is implied that overparenting hinder their child from developing psychological dependence and autonomy. However, most of the related research has focused on young children and adolescents, the literature with respect to overparenting and college students’ outcomes are limited. This study hypothesized that there are negative associations of overparenting with key competencies in college students and examined the relation with behavioral tasks.

The effects of exercise class vs. self-management class on reducing impulsivity in college students

 

 

Impulsivity is the tendency to act with little forethought or consideration of the consequences(Eysenck, 1967) and includes a wide range of actions that lead to short-term rewards and risky outcomes. It is known to be associated with a variety of self-control problems among college students, such as smoking, drinking, internet addiction, etc. Former research has suggested that behavioral modification delivered as a college course helps students to reduce impulsivity (Choi & Chung, 2011; Kim & Chung, in preparation). In addition, physical exercise has been associated with improvements in impulsivity from another stream of research (Oaten & Cheng, 2006). It is presumed that both behavioral modification and physical exercise can be helpful intervention for improving impulsivity. However, there has been little effort made to investigate how exercise affects impulsivity of college students and to compare the effects of behavioral modification and exercise in a college setting. Therefore, this study aims to compare the effects of an exercise class vs. self-management class on impulsivity, habit strength, and behavior change.

Development and Validation of the Yface database

The human faces provide plentiful social information including identity, emotional or motivational state, and attention. Due to its own unique and distinct characteristics, the human faces is widely used in various research areas.
The Yface database, a face database developed by our research team, contains a variety of photos and videos of facial expression. The purpose of this study is to validate the Yface database by evaluating the validity, intensity, and naturalness of each facial expression.

The effect of an app-based self-management program “HARU”

The purpose of this study is to develop an app-based self-management program, “HARU”, for cancer patients and to test its effectiveness. The program provides a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression/anxiety, sleep, and pain problem which are the most common psychological problems of cancer patients.

This is the process of HARU:

First, participants identify their problem from module assessment and the severity of the problem from severity assessment. Then, participants who exceed the cut-off score are recommended the “HARU Program” while the other participants are recommended the “HARU Card”. “HARU Program” is an intensive intervention program consisting of education and activities while “HARU Card” is a minimal intervention program that incorporates a set of cards that provide helpful information to alleviate psychological problems. Thus, the current study aims to examine the effects of an app-based self-management program for cancer patients.

Development and Validation Study of the Yonsei Mindreading Face Battery(Y-CAM)

Accurately identifying other’s emotional states is crucial for fluent social interaction.

The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face Battery is widely used to assess one’s emotional recognition ability with video-taped 24 sets of subtle emotional expression. However, the video stimulus is limited to Caucasian population and include emotional expressions uncommon in Asian culture. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate Yonsei Mindreading Face Battery(Y-CAM), which is Korean version of CAM. The video and Y-CAM can yield significant outcomes as the face stimuli can be utilized as experimental tools in diverse fields of academic studies with Asian population.

 

Eun Sun Chung

Representation of facial identity and expression in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder; Identity- and Expression- contingent aftereffect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) have impairments in face processing. Recent studies examined an underlying mechanism of the deficit by using an “face adaptation paradigm”, which is an experimental method developed for testing the norm-based coding model. In this paradigm, temporary perceptual change can be observed in response to prolonged exposure to a face (‘adaptation’). The change caused by adaptation is called ‘aftereffect‘, which is considered as evidence of norm-based representation of face. Several studies revealed that persons with ASD showed reduced aftereffects in both facial identity and expression compared to typically developing (TD) people. These results suggested that the representation of face is atypical in ASD group, in an aspect of facial identity and expression in isolation. However, no previous study has examined the integrative representation of these two elements in persons with ASD. The purpose of the study was to test the ‘expression-contingent identity aftereffect’ (exp.1) and ‘identity-contingent expression aftereffects’ (exp.2). By measuring effect of identity change on expression aftereffect or vice versa, integrative representation patterns of identity and expression in two groups were compared.

The Effect of Context in Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorders(ASD) are characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted behaviors and interests. A body of literature shows that ASDs have impairments in recognition of facial emotion which may contribute to social impairment. Most studies use faces presented alone without any context as stimuli, suggesting a strong and automatic influence of context on face recognition. Consequently, prior studies for ASDs may be limited in the sense that they lack potentially important contextual cues and may not fully capture the difficulties experienced in everyday life. This study investigated quantitative change in emotional intensity ratings with the addition of contextual information in children with ASD. Participants in the current study were 20 children with ASD and 20 typically developing individuals(TD). All participants were asked to assess the emotional intensity of a single emotion(happy/anger) from images presented under two conditions(context-free and context embedded). The results showed there is no significant difference in the addition of contextual cues. To suggests that ASDs have impairment in using contextual cues to moderate their assessment of emotional intensity.

 

Psychosocial Characteristics of Infants with Genital Anomalies and Their Caregivers

The present study explored psychosocial characteristics of infants with genital anomalies (GA) and their caregivers against normal controls. Participants were female caregivers and infants between the ages of 6to38months diagnosed with hypospadias(HS;n=103) or cryptorchidism (CR;n=49). Normalcontrols(n=131) were recruited and selected via Internet. Caregivers completed measures on parenting stress, coping style, social support, and infant temperament. Within the GAgroups, HScaregivers reported their greatest parental concerns as infant urination/bodily functioning difficulties whereas CRcaregivers reported worries related to surgical anesthesia issues. Both groups reported concern about their children’s potential reproductive problems. Per caregiver report, infants with GA had lower ability to self-soothe. HS infants in particular were perceived as exhibiting greater negative emotion. Compared with controls, HS and CRcaregivers overall employed coping strategies more frequently and had lower interpersonal sensitivity and parental distress. However, HScaregivers emerged as experiencing higher stress when compared to the CRgroup. There were no differences in to tal parenting stress and social support scores between groups. Further, CRcaregivers reported lower levels of family discord than controls. Despite temperament-related differences between infants with GA and normal controls, HS and CRcaregivers reported lower parental distress and greater use of coping skills as compared to controls. Clinical implications are discussed.

Effects of reward magnitude on the performance of delayed discounting task: focusing on smoking and drinking behaviors

This study was conducted in order to evaluate sensitivity of two levels of delay discounting tasks and to determine whether levels of task reward could discriminate people with diverse status of health-related behavior. Reward magnitude was used as an independent variable. Participants included 202 undergraduate students (87 males and 115 females, mean age 20.03(SD=1.88)). Each participant performed two levels of delay discounting tasks and completed the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11(BIS-11). They were classified into groups according to their status on two health-related behaviors, smoking and drinking alcohol. According to the results, the discounting rate was significantly higher when the value of reward in the discounting task was lower. In addition, the group of people who smoke or drink alcohol reported a significantly higher discounting rate in the task with lower value of reward. However, delay discounting task with higher value of reward and BIS-11 did not explain the differences between the groups. Results implicated that reward magnitude in delay discounting task may influence sensitivity of the task. This suggested the need for careful selection of the amount of reward of delay discounting task when evaluating impulsivity. Additional information and limitation for future research were discussed.

The Effectiveness of a College-Level Self-Management Course on Health Promoting Behavior Change by the Respective Behavior Type

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effectiveness of a self-management (SM) course differed depending on the target behavior type. Undergraduate students were taught behavioral principles relevant to self-management and were asked to modify their own problem behaviors using those principles. In the present study, we (a) directly compared the effectiveness of the SM course across target behavior types and (b) measured behavior change outcomes based on three variables. A total of 268 university students took the SM course and participated in the self-modification project, and 121 students were used for analysis. The study timeline was as follows: baseline (2-3 weeks), SM course (3 months), and final week. During the baseline and final weeks, students filled out self-report questionnaires. In addition, they recorded their daily behavior during the SM course regarding their target problem behavior. The result revealed that the effectiveness of the SM course was significantly different depending on the behavior type, which were study habits, exercise behaviors, sleeping habits, nervous habits, and eating habits. More specifically, nervous habits were more amenable to change through the SM course than sleep habits and exercise behavior. These findings were similar across the three different outcomes measures. Implications and limitations are discussed.