The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effectiveness of a self-management (SM) course differed depending on the target behavior type. Undergraduate students were taught behavioral principles relevant to self-management and were asked to modify their own problem behaviors using those principles. In the present study, we (a) directly compared the effectiveness of the SM course across target behavior types and (b) measured behavior change outcomes based on three variables. A total of 268 university students took the SM course and participated in the self-modification project, and 121 students were used for analysis. The study timeline was as follows: baseline (2-3 weeks), SM course (3 months), and final week. During the baseline and final weeks, students filled out self-report questionnaires. In addition, they recorded their daily behavior during the SM course regarding their target problem behavior. The result revealed that the effectiveness of the SM course was significantly different depending on the behavior type, which were study habits, exercise behaviors, sleeping habits, nervous habits, and eating habits. More specifically, nervous habits were more amenable to change through the SM course than sleep habits and exercise behavior. These findings were similar across the three different outcomes measures. Implications and limitations are discussed.